Af Imt Form 137 Footprint Record

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Af Imt Form 137 Footprint Record – Open Access Policy Open Access Program Special Issues Planning Guidelines Research Planning Process and Publication Ethics Evidence of Awards Processing Fees

All articles he publishes are immediately available worldwide under an open access license. Reuse of all or part of the article, including figures and tables, does not require special permission. For articles published under the Creative Commons CC BY open access license, any part of the article may be reused without permission, provided the original article is clearly identified. See https:///openaccess for more information.

Af Imt Form 137 Footprint Record

Af Imt Form 137 Footprint Record

Contributions represent high-quality research that has the potential to have a significant impact on the field. Papers are submitted by individual invitation or recommendation of scientific editors and are subject to peer review before publication.

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A paper can be an original research article, a major new study, often involving many techniques or methods, or a comprehensive review paper with concise and accurate reviews of the latest developments in the field, systematically reviewing the most exciting developments in science. books. This type of paper provides insight into future research directions or potential applications.

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations from scientific journal editors from around the world. The editors select a small number of recently published articles in the journal that they believe will be of particular interest to readers or relevant to a particular area of ​​research. The aim is to give a brief overview of some of the most exciting works published in the various research areas of the journal.

Received: 12 March 2022 / Revised: 22 March 2022 / Accepted: 23 March 2022 / Published: 12 April 2022

As the deployment of 5G mobile radio networks around the world gathers momentum, the wireless research community is already planning a successor to 5G. In this paper, we highlight the shortcomings of 5G in meeting the needs of many applications that require data with low latency and very high reliability. We then discuss the key aspects of the 6G network following a hierarchical approach, including social, economic and technological aspects. We also discuss some key technologies expected to support the transition to 6G. Finally, we measure and summarize the research activity related to networks beyond 5G and 6G through a comprehensive search of publications and research groups, and present a possible timeline of 6G activities.

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3GPP; 6G; artificial intelligence; beyond 5G; edge computing; the next generation; THz 3GPP; 6G; artificial intelligence; beyond 5G; edge computing; the next generation; THz

The global telecommunications network has come a long way since plans for the second generation (2G) radio network were launched in the early 1990s. The second generation network is undoubtedly recognized around the world as the beginning of a new era of digital communications. Considering the huge growth of communication between users in the form of SMS messages and telephone calls at the end of the last century, this is not surprising [1]. The world at that time underwent a paradigm shift at all levels, from individual users to large corporations, creating space for new business models. Since then, the focus has been on providing faster communication speeds and supporting a larger number of users. To reduce the connection problems that occur when many users try to access the network at the same time and to provide a better experience, the third generation (3G) systems were introduced in the early 2000s with new techniques, most notably the Universal Mobile A. system (UMTS) with its code core broadband more access [2]. However, 3G was short-lived for various reasons. Many analysts believe that 3G is facing regulatory and technical problems, which have led many carriers to remove it from their networks. On the contrary, the praise of the world press, which is widespread about the 3G fan, i.e. 4G, introduced around 2010, has proved to be the most successful generation after 2G so far. The fourth generation network is based on orthogonal frequency multiplexing (OFDM) and multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) [3] systems, which provide a theoretical speed of 1 Gb/s and more, until recently considered sufficient for almost all services of existing networks and applications. Figure 1 shows a timeline outline of the development of wireless networks.

Currently, many emerging services and network needs require speed and network infrastructure beyond 4G capabilities. The newly launched 5G system is often presented as an integrated system that fills the gap between 4G and current network requirements such as high communication speed and very low communication latency [4]. However, a new direction of research has just begun that investigates alternatives to 5G and looks further afield. The drivers of this new direction are examined in detail in the next section. Basically, 5G is expected to be insufficient for future network needs. In addition, some challenges remain unsolved or neglected in the current standards of 5G, such as dealing with signal propagation loss, which will inevitably increase with the use of higher frequencies (over 20 GHz), or maintaining effective network management in increasingly complex networks [5, 6]. ].

Af Imt Form 137 Footprint Record

Although research beyond 5G has gained momentum in recent years with many studies and debates in the literature, we differ in our sequential approach, which provides a comprehensive overview of the various aspects of the technologies that enable 6G and the current major research. programs and publications related to 6G. In addition, we discuss several deep learning methods that will be used in 6G, provide an exact number of papers discussing next-generation networks between 2015 and 2020, and show how the depth of 6G discussions has changed over the years. In addition, we divided the published 6G research into seven categories: Waveform, Antennas, Artificial Intelligence (AI), Security, Blockchain, Governance, and Architecture, and provided a new list of 6G research at the time of writing. paper. In this paper, we discuss the challenges facing 5G and how they should drive research towards 6G. The main contributions of this work are mainly the following:

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The rest of the paper is organized as follows: Section 2 discusses the main obstacles to 5G, and Section 3 discusses the features, requirements and enabling technologies of 6G. Section 4 presents an overview of current research related to 6G, and finally Section 5 provides a conclusion. Figure 2 shows the outline of our paper.

This section looks at how well 5G is expected to perform as it has been introduced in many global markets recently. First, it’s worth checking out key 5G technologies that are rapidly becoming obsolete. Network congestion is a key player in 5G with the widespread use of small cells. However, the benefits of this introduction, ie. improved coverage and higher data speeds represent diminishing returns as smaller cells are used due to significant increases in infrastructure costs. Another technology is carrier aggregation, which allows users to be assigned to more than just one network segment, thus providing greater bandwidth [7]. However, this has consequences for the end user’s hardware to support different frequency bands. It is worth considering the Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) as a key part of 5G to reduce the hardware limitations of the end device. However, as networks grow larger, it becomes clear that the cloud alone is not enough, and fog and edge node computing is required. In addition, security in standard 5G technologies is not developed enough to be deployed on a very large scale, such as software-defined networking (SDN), where there are no mechanisms to ensure trust between management and controller applications. Another example is network function virtualization (NFV), where attackers can target software-level components such as the virtual infrastructure manager and create fake logs that disrupt NFV functionality [8]. In addition, 5G offers reliable low latency communication (URLLC) as one of its key drivers. However, it is limited to the edges of the network without true integration throughout the network (including the core) [9]. Additionally, the concept of heterogeneous networks (HetNets) is at the core of 5G technology, but currently such network integration is limited to terrestrial networks. This needs to be further extended to three dimensions by integrating air mesh networks in space into a larger network. It is also important to note that 5G is not immune to Denial of Service (DoS) attacks or threats that compromise its availability [10]. It is important that this is developed in future networks to accommodate the size of large networks that are growing with billions of nodes. We then present the demands and requirements of a global telecommunications network that is expected to surpass the capabilities of 5G.

It is predicted that by 2030, global mobile traffic will be 670 times higher than in 2010, mainly due to machine-to-machine (M2M) communication [11]. This is an unprecedented growth that encourages researchers all over the world to achieve technological breakthroughs in many aspects of the network, especially in observation techniques and efficiency. The fifth generation network is expected to bring enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB) to the network, i.e. it offers speeds up to 20 Gbps [12], and a large variety of hardware

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