Dd Form 1215 In Place Density Determination Sand Cone Method

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Dd Form 1215 In Place Density Determination Sand Cone Method – North-South Gas Corridor in the context of the Polish gas transmission system – a great opportunity for diversification of gas resources

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Dd Form 1215 In Place Density Determination Sand Cone Method

Dd Form 1215 In Place Density Determination Sand Cone Method

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Received: September 10, 2021 / Revised: October 20, 2021 / Accepted: October 22, 2021 / Published: November 2, 2021

Hot springs in the Alvord/Pueblo valleys of southeastern Oregon are similar to basin-and-range hydrothermal systems, where heat sources and permeable pathways meet through crustal thinning. Silica deposition at Mickey Springs in the Alvord Valley predates the Late Pleistocene high assemblage of the Lake Alvord pluvial. At Borax Lake in the Pueblo Valley, sinter was deposited during the Holocene. This study examines spring development at Mickey Springs where three sintering morphologies are present: (1) basalt clasts surrounded by intrusive conglomerates and sintering in sandstone, (2) basin rims and sintering rims (12–32 m). around diameter) and (3) quaversal sinter mounds with sinter at the edge of the basin. The oldest sintering occurs in quartz-cemented conglomerate and sandstone where deposition occurred before 30 kya. Extensive depression and deposition around the mounds occurred after 30 kya, but before water levels in pluvial Lake Alvord began to rise. Thermoluminescence dates indicate that sintering deposition ceased before 18 kya when silt and clay filled inactive vents and buried aprons. Some mounds hosted active springs after sinter deposition, but sank into the Alvard pluvial lake. Now, high-temperature springs, steam bubbles and mud pots are concentrated in a 50 × 50 m area near the southern edge of the spring area.

Dd Form 1215 In Place Density Determination Sand Cone Method

Silicon dioxide; thermoluminescence dating; ground penetrating radar; Northwest Basin-and-Range Province; quartz sintering in the Alvord/Pueblo valleys; thermoluminescence dating; ground penetrating radar; Northwest Basin-and-Range Province; Alvord/Pueblo Valleys

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Surface and subsurface hydrogeological conditions of geothermal systems are recorded in quartz sinters. However, it is difficult to constrain the time of sintering deposition based on the geological processes taking place in the surrounding environment and the duration of conditions that allow the delivery of amorphous silica to the surface environment.

Three hot spring areas in the Alvord and Pueblo valleys of southeastern Oregon (Fig. 1) have silica deposits, but none are currently depositing sinter. At two relatively native sites, Borax Lake [1, 2, 3] and Mickey Springs [4, 5], stratigraphy, structure, hydrogeochemistry, and age dates provide insight into the timing of quartz sinter deposition during the development of these hot spring systems. provide . . Remote sites designated as Areas of Critical Ecological Concern (ACEC) by the Bureau of Land Management and owned by Borax Lake protect hot spring deposits and provide opportunities to examine the timing and duration of silica deposition. do Geothermal systems and the evolution of Late Pleistocene pluvial Lake Alvord. These temporal relationships are in the context of the tectonic evolution of the northwestern Basin-and-Range Province [6], continuous deformation of the Alvord/Pueblo valleys [7, 8, 9, 10], fluid flow dynamics along active faults [11]. . , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 ] and chronology and deformation of pluvial lake shores [ 9 , 10 ].

While many studies have examined the coagulation dynamics and diagenesis of silica sintering at the microscale (e.g., [16, 17, 18, 19]), this study examines the mesoscale lifetime and migration of spring properties at Mickey Springs. does The objectives of this study were to (1) revise the stratigraphy and structure of the Mickey Springs site in relation to the pluvial and neotectonic history of the Alvord/Pueblo Valleys, and (2) interpret the duration and timing of sintering deposition based on thermoluminescence. Dating of deposits underlying and overlying silica deposits. These relationships have been compared to Borax Lake in the Pueblo Valley as described in [2, 3, 11, 12, 13].

Sintra morphology and active spring vents were mapped using a handheld GPS (Garmin GPSmap 60CSx, ±~2 m) and a Sokkia Set 4BII total station (±1 cm used). The elevation was referenced to USGS Datum 28 STR (PID NX0385), adjusted to the 1988 North American Vertical Datum, with an elevation of 1247.101 m.

Pdf) A Benchmark 1 G Shaking Table Test Of Shallow Segmental Mini Tunnel In Sand

Sinter properties were measured in north/south and east/west directions. Central depressions were measured at the slope break to the surrounding syngrass slab. Plate diameters were measured where the outer extent of sintering was evident or where a slope break was observed between the edge of the plate and the surrounding landscape.

Active vent temperature was recorded with a Vernier TMP-BTA temperature sensor from LabQuest. Thermal profiles were determined in the drill hole using a custom-made temperature probe controlled by an Arduino microcontroller. The temperature array consists of 10 DS18B20 temperature sensors spaced 14 cm apart with insulated PVC (total length 1.5 m, diameter 1 cm). Sensors were removed when the observed temperature change was less than 0.5 °C over two minutes.

Modeling of Critical Environmental Hazard (ACEC) area elevations and specific core features was done using Structure from Motion (SfM). A series of images of the source area taken from several elevated positions (a camera on a vertical mast and a balloon with a kite and an attached camera) were digitally processed using VisualSFM [20] to create a cloud of elevation points. was processed. This point cloud was imported into MeshLab [21] to remove false points by visually matching GPS coordinates of photographed objects with points in the model and then into CloudCompare [22] for geostratification. This georeferenced point cloud was then exported as a .las file and imported into ArcMap as a LiDAR dataset to create a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and a selection of aerial imagery was imported into ArcMap. was geostratified for DEM in

Dd Form 1215 In Place Density Determination Sand Cone Method

Mowbray and Cummings [4] used 250 MHz GPR and were able to distinguish sinter and sediment structures down to a depth of 2 m. A total of three GPR transects [5] were made in May 2014 using 50 MHz unshielded antennas spaced 2 m apart, 50 cm apart. A line was duplicated by 100 MHz, operating at 1000 volts with a horizontal resolution of and a penetration depth of 17 m. Unshielded antennas operate with a horizontal spacing of 1000 volts at a distance of 1 meter and a penetration depth of 10 meters. The ground wave velocity at the top of feature Q4 with a 100 MHz antenna was estimated to be 0.08 m/μs, thus relating the drift changes observed in the exposed central depression to the characteristics of the GPR signal. Initial field observations of the GPR signal showed a penetration of up to ~20 m, which was used to set the time window. Each line was surveyed with a total station (Sokia Set 4BII) and elevation corrected to the same USGS scale as the surface mapping. Echo View Deluxe [23] was used to process and visualize the GPR data.

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Sediment samples were collected from surface sediments and boreholes. Thirty-two (32) samples were selected for grain size analysis: 20 samples from inside and 12 samples from outside ACEC. Samples were wetted to separate pebbles (> 2 mm) and sand (2 mm–63 µm) from silt and clay (<63 µm). Silt and clay are grouped here as grains smaller than 4Φ (0.063 mm). Sand grains range in size from 4 to −1Φ (0.063 to 2 mm), and pebbles range in size from −1 to −6Φ (2 to 64 mm).

Sediment for TL dating was sampled opportunistically and not collected from specific sequence boundaries or lithology transitions. Because of the high soil temperature and low water content, tabletop samples were collected within 1 m of the surface. A sample depth of 7.6 cm was obtained with an AMS hand drill. Samples for dating were collected with an AMS soil core sampler and hauled away

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