Fws Form 3 2381 2 Southern Coastal Alaska Harvest Report
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Fws Form 3 2381 2 Southern Coastal Alaska Harvest Report
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Pdn20150506c By Peninsula Daily News & Sequim Gazette
Global distribution patterns of bald eagles across North America: How do they relate to existing mapping systems?
Conservation of widespread animals requires knowledge of their annual movements and resource use. The golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) exhibits a wide range of movements throughout North America. We combined tracking data from 571 golden eagles from multiple independent satellite telemetry projects across North America to provide a comprehensive view of the scale and magnitude of these continent-wide movements. We compared the methods used in four other administrative and ecological mapping systems, namely the Bird Conservation Areas (BCR), the US Migratory Bird Administrative Flyways, the Migratory Bird Joint Ventures, and the Landscape Conservation Cooperatives. Our study found that eagles captured in eastern North America used space differently than those captured in western North America. Other groups of vultures that showed different patterns of space use included long-distance migrants from the northern regions and residents of the desert Southwest and California. There were also several flocks of eagles on the west side. Using this collaborative approach, large-scale activity patterns were identified that may not have been possible in individual studies. These results will support conservation measures for bald eagles across North America.
Conservation of single species is most effective when viewed in an environment of appropriate biological value (Fedy et al. 2014). Such an approach requires data-driven planning that integrates the different demands that people present at different stages of their life cycle. However, developing an effective conservation plan can be difficult for diverse species that exhibit differences in movement across multiple boundaries during their lifetime (Marra et al. 2011).
The golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is an active, long-lived species that exhibits late reproductive maturity (Kochert et al. 2002, Watson 2010). Golden eagles occur throughout North America and exhibit a wide variety of behaviors. At the end of the migration there are resident or permanent eagles that can spend their entire lives within a small geographic area (Steenhof et al. 1984). At the other end of the spectrum are long-distance migrants that travel tens of thousands of kilometers across continents in their lifetime (Brodeur et al. 1996, McIntyre et al. 2008, Miller et al. 2014). However, even bald eagles that are considered to be resident can exhibit a range of activities that vary from year to year (Watson et al. 2014, Poessel et al. 2016). In general, the movements of bald eagles, regardless of migration location, may vary depending on age, breeding status and resource availability (Steenhof et al. 1984, Watson 2010, Braham et al. 2015, Poessel et al. 2016). Such differences in behavior and behavior defy simple land use classification, which poses challenges in establishing comprehensive conservation measures across large areas of North America.
Lake Region Guide Summer 2018 By Ndrecreationguides
In addition to generally informing conservation planning, a better understanding of bald eagle behavior can be directly applied to species management. The high mobility and diversity of Golden Eagle movement patterns lead individuals across political, administrative and ecological boundaries (Brodeur et al. 1996, McIntyre et al. 2008, Braham et al. 2015, Poessel et al. 2016). Variations in legislative and land management priorities among different administrative agencies may affect Golden Eagles. For example, a management unit may not balance the use of vultures migrating from their breeding grounds to another unit, perhaps far away. Conversely, a group may contain most of the population’s movements. In the United States, the Bald and Golden Eagle Conservation Act (16 United States Code 668–668d; and subsequent regulations) and subsequent regulations authorize the US Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) to permit the taking (territory the rule as disruption, injury or injury). death of eagles or extermination of nests and eggs), when it is determined that acceptable results are “…consistent with the objective of a stable or increasing population” within the population management unit ( Eagle Management Units [EMU]; US Fish and Wildlife Service. 2009). Due to the lack of accurate ecological data to determine bald eagle populations in the western United States, we used the North American Bird Conservation Region (BCR; US Bird Conservation Initiative Monitoring) Subcommittee 2007) the Agency to determine the EMU for the type when creating the non-linear approach. permit in 2009 (Babcock et al. 1998, US Fish and Wildlife Service 2009). In May 2016, the Service issued a draft Environmental Impact Statement proposing to establish US Administrative Migratory Flyways (Flyways; US Fish and Wildlife Service 2014) as EMUs for bald eagles, based on mating survey sites and mortality recovery sites (US. Fish and Wildlife Service 2016). This analysis showed that 84% of golden eagle recoveries were confined within the flyway group from which the birds originated, while only 73% of recoveries were within the BCR (US Fish and Wildlife Service 2016). This, in part, led the Service to propose the use of flight paths as control units to control reception. Although Flyways may be an appropriate management unit for controlling take over large geographic areas, management systems and other ecological maps may also be useful for conservation purposes. the area.
In this study, we combined tracking data from 571 bald eagles from 34 studies in North America to estimate the distribution of bald eagle movements relative to four administrative map systems that focus on bird conservation and management: Flyways, BCRs, Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs). ), and Migratory Bird Joint Ventures (JVs; Figure 1). Our research addresses the following eagle management research questions: (1) Do bald eagle movements conform to the previously described description system, whereby detectable movements of young eagles are limited? in well-defined locations/areas, and the extent of well-defined areas on the boundaries of the mapped system? and 2) How does migratory eagle behavior affect adherence to these systems? Possible results include the determination that (a) the movement of the eagle is well represented by one or more mapping systems; b) The behavior of eagles is not well represented by the analyzed system, but the results suggest another classification (for example, maybe a combination of existing elements from one or more mapping systems that can be used for the management of eagle); or (c) the behavior of eagles is complex or different for all populations or age groups to be consistent with shared geography. Due to the migratory nature of some bald eagles in North America and the high level of movement of many eagles, we predicted that the most suitable system would be Flyways, as they are designed to manage migratory bird groups, or JVs. , because they are. linking and harmonizing environmental characteristics at continental and regional scales. In contrast, BCRs and LCCs are typically small in area compared to known eagle habitats, and are generally designed to conserve a variety of species with different life spans and different characteristics.
The boundaries of (A) Bird Conservation Areas (BCRs), (B) Flyways, (C) Joint Ventures (JVs), and (D) Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) in North America.
History of mapping systems. The boundaries for the relevant mapping systems were drawn with reference to different applications, leading to significant differences in geography between groups. Flyways (ie, Atlantic, Mississippi, Central, and Pacific) are developed by the Service to help coordinate the management of bird populations across state and national boundaries (US Fish and Wildlife Service 2014, 2015). We have not been able to find a direct account of the method followed to determine the boundaries of the Flyway group, which follows political boundaries (sometimes at the regional level). Given that the first use of the administrative runway dates back to 1947, we suspect that the decision was based primarily on the return of eagles killed by hunters (US Fish and Wildlife Service 1984). Unlike Flyways that focused on bird populations, habitat JVs were originally designed to help protect bird habitat (US Fish and Wildlife Service 1986). The 11 habitat JVs established before 1999 considered only bird habitats, while the nine companies established later included all birds in their initial processes (Migratory Bird Joint Ventures 2016). Several SE boundaries are influenced by or directly follow the BCR boundary (see description below).
Fws Form 3 2349 Download Fillable Pdf Or Fill Online Alaska Guide Service Evaluation
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