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A Super Fun Ocean Animals Printable Pack For Kids from Sea Life Printables, source:Fun With Mama
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Free Printable Sea Animals Toddler Coloring Page ⋆ BelarabyApps from Sea Life Printables, source:بالعربي نتعلم
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Sea Animals Worksheet Stock Illustrations – 347 Sea Animals … from Sea Life Printables, source:Dreamstime.com
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Sea Animals Free Printable Templates & Coloring Pages … from Sea Life Printables, source:FirstPalette.com
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Safari Ltd Ocean Animals Preschool Printables from Sea Life Printables, source:Living Life and Learning
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O is for Ocean Animals — Letter O Printables from Sea Life Printables, source:Teaching Mama
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Ocean Creatures Memory Game – Simple Fun for Kids from Sea Life Printables, source:Simple Fun for Kids
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OCEAN LIFE – ESL worksheet by jhansi from Sea Life Printables, source:ESL Printables

New Geology articles published online ahead of print in September New Geology articles published online ahead of print in September Boulder, Colo., USA: Article topics and locations include the use of high-resolution three-dimensional seismic data to analyze the infill of buried tunnel valleys in the North Sea; volcanic plumbing; rivers in reverse; the 2014–2015 Holuhraun lava flow field, Iceland; Lake Magadi, Kenya; and measuring wind via sand dunes on Mars. These Geology articles are online at https://geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/early/recent. Boulder, Colo., USA: Article topics and locations include the use of high-resolution three-dimensional seismic data to analyze the infill of buried tunnel valleys in the North Sea; volcanic plumbing; rivers in reverse; the 2014–2015 Holuhraun lava flow field, Iceland; Lake Magadi, Kenya; and measuring wind via sand dunes on Mars. These Geology articles are online at https://geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/early/recent. Interaction bounding surfaces exposed in migrating transverse aeolian ridges on MarsMackenzie DayAbstract: Wind-blown sand self-organizes into bedforms that have now been identified on six different planetary bodies. These bedforms, including ripples and dunes, exhibit patterns that are diagnostic of surface-atmosphere interactions and can be used to interpret winds and sediment supply from satellite images of planetary surfaces. Patterns in dune and ripple fields change when one or more bedforms interact, for example, by linking, colliding, or merging with one another. When two bedforms interact, the cross-strata developed by the bedforms include a bounding surface where the two bedforms combined. These “interaction bounding surfaces” have been interpreted from ancient and modern strata in recent literature, but they have not yet been identified beyond Earth. On Mars, aeolian dunes and ripples form much as they do on Earth, but additional enigmatic bedform types are also present. Transverse aeolian ridges are straight-crested bedforms found abundantly on Mars, but with few analogs on Earth. Formation mechanisms for these enigmatic bedforms range from dune-like migration and construction to growth in place via wedge stacking or kinetic sieving. In this work, I studied exposed stoss-slope stratification on these enigmatic Martian bedforms to (1) identify the first in situ examples of interaction bounding surfaces captured visually, and (2) demonstrate that the transverse aeolian ridges must have been forward migrating.View article: https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article-abstract/doi/10.1130/G49373.1/608087/Interaction-bounding-surfaces-exposed-in-migrating Interaction bounding surfaces exposed in migrating transverse aeolian ridges on MarsMackenzie DayAbstract: Wind-blown sand self-organizes into bedforms that have now been identified on six different planetary bodies. These bedforms, including ripples and dunes, exhibit patterns that are diagnostic of surface-atmosphere interactions and can be used to interpret winds and sediment supply from satellite images of planetary surfaces. Patterns in dune and ripple fields change when one or more bedforms interact, for example, by linking, colliding, or merging with one another. When two bedforms interact, the cross-strata developed by the bedforms include a bounding surface where the two bedforms combined. These “interaction bounding surfaces” have been interpreted from ancient and modern strata in recent literature, but they have not yet been identified beyond Earth. On Mars, aeolian dunes and ripples form much as they do on Earth, but additional enigmatic bedform types are also present. Transverse aeolian ridges are straight-crested bedforms found abundantly on Mars, but with few analogs on Earth. Formation mechanisms for these enigmatic bedforms range from dune-like migration and construction to growth in place via wedge stacking or kinetic sieving. In this work, I studied exposed stoss-slope stratification on these enigmatic Martian bedforms to (1) identify the first in situ examples of interaction bounding surfaces captured visually, and (2) demonstrate that the transverse aeolian ridges must have been forward migrating.View article: https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article-abstract/doi/10.1130/G49373.1/608087/Interaction-bounding-surfaces-exposed-in-migrating The influence of rock uplift rate on the formation and preservation of individual marine terraces during multiple sea-level standsLuca C. Malatesta; Noah J. Finnegan; Kimberly L. Huppert; Emily I. CarreñoAbstract: Marine terraces are a cornerstone for the study of paleo sea level and crustal deformation. Commonly, individual erosive marine terraces are attributed to unique sea-level high stands based on the reasoning that marine platforms could only be significantly widened at the beginning of an interglacial. However, this logic implies that wave erosion is insignificant at other times. We postulate that the erosion potential at a given bedrock elevation datum is proportional to the total duration of sea-level occupation at that datum. The total duration of sea-level occupation depends strongly on rock uplift rate. Certain rock uplift rates may promote the generation and preservation of particular terraces while others prevent them. For example, at rock uplift of ~1.2 mm/yr, the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e (ca. 120 ka) high stand reoccupies the elevation of the MIS 6d–e mid-stand, favoring creation of a wider terrace than at higher or lower rock uplift rates. Thus, misidentification of terraces can occur if each terrace in a sequence is assumed to form uniquely at successive interglacial high stands and to reflect their relative elevations. Developing a graphical proxy for the entire erosion potential of sea-level history allows us to address creation and preservation biases at different rock uplift rates.View article: https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article-abstract/doi/10.1130/G49245.1/608088/The-influence-of-rock-uplift-rate-on-the-formation The influence of rock uplift rate on the formation and preservation of individual marine terraces during multiple sea-level standsLuca C. Malatesta; Noah J. Finnegan; Kimberly L. Huppert; Emily I. CarreñoAbstract: Marine terraces are a cornerstone for the study of paleo sea level and crustal deformation. Commonly, individual erosive marine terraces are attributed to unique sea-level high stands based on the reasoning that marine platforms could only be significantly widened at the beginning of an interglacial. However, this logic implies that wave erosion is insignificant at other times. We postulate that the erosion potential at a given bedrock elevation datum is proportional to the total duration of sea-level occupation at that datum. The total duration of sea-level occupation depends strongly on rock uplift rate. Certain rock uplift rates may promote the generation and preservation of particular terraces while others prevent them. For example, at rock uplift of ~1.2 mm/yr, the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e (ca. 120 ka) high stand reoccupies the elevation of the MIS 6d–e mid-stand, favoring creation of a wider terrace than at higher or lower rock uplift rates. Thus, misidentification of terraces can occur if each terrace in a sequence is assumed to form uniquely at successive interglacial high stands and to reflect their relative elevations. Developing a graphical proxy for the entire erosion potential of sea-level history allows us to address creation and preservation biases at different rock uplift rates.View article: https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article-abstract/doi/10.1130/G49245.1/608088/The-influence-of-rock-uplift-rate-on-the-formation Thermodynamic limits for assimilation of silicate crust in primitive magmasJussi S. Heinonen; Frank J. Spera; Wendy A. BohrsonAbstract: Some geochemical models for basaltic and more primitive rocks suggest that their parental magmas have assimilated tens of weight percent of crustal silicate wall rock. But what are the thermodynamic limits for assimilation in primitive magmas? We pursue this question quantitatively using a freely available thermodynamic tool for phase equilibria modeling of open magmatic systems—the Magma Chamber Simulator (https://mcs.geol.ucsb.edu)—and focus on modeling assimilation of wall-rock partial melts, which is thermodynamically more efficient compared to bulk assimilation of stoped wall-rock blocks in primitive igneous systems. In the simulations, diverse komatiitic, picritic, and basaltic parental magmas assimilate progressive partial melts of preheated average lower, middle, and upper crust in amounts allowed by thermodynamics. Our results indicate that it is difficult for any subalkaline primitive magma to assimilate more than 20–30 wt% of upper or middle crust before evolving to compositions with higher SiO2 than a basaltic magma (52 wt%). On the other hand, typical komatiitic magmas have thermodynamic potential to assimilate as much as their own mass (59–102 wt%) of lower crust and retain a basaltic composition. The compositions of the parental melt and the assimilant heavily influence both how much assimilation is energetically possible in primitive magmas and the final magma composition given typical temperatures. These findings have important implications for the role of assimilation in the generation and evolution of, e.g., ultramafic to mafic trans-Moho magmatic systems, siliceous high-Mg basalts, and massif-type anorthosites.View article: https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article-abstract/doi/10.1130/G49139.1/608089/Thermodynamic-limits-for-assimilation-of-silicate Thermodynamic limits for assimilation of silicate crust in primitive magmasJussi S. Heinonen; Frank J. Spera; Wendy A. BohrsonAbstract: Some geochemical models for basaltic and more primitive rocks suggest that their parental magmas have assimilated tens of weight percent of crustal silicate wall rock. But what are the thermodynamic limits for assimilation in primitive magmas? We pursue this question quantitatively using a freely available thermodynamic tool for phase equilibria modeling of open magmatic systems—the Magma Chamber Simulator (https://mcs.geol.ucsb.edu)—and focus on modeling assimilation of wall-rock partial melts, which is thermodynamically more efficient compared to bulk assimilation of stoped wall-rock blocks in primitive igneous systems. In the simulations, diverse komatiitic, picritic, and basaltic parental magmas assimilate progressive partial melts of preheated average lower, middle, and upper crust in amounts allowed by thermodynamics. Our results indicate that it is difficult for any subalkaline primitive magma to assimilate more than 20–30 wt% of upper or middle crust before evolving to compositions with higher SiO2 than a basaltic magma (52 wt%). On the other hand, typical komatiitic magmas have thermodynamic potential to assimilate as much as their own mass (59–102 wt%) of lower crust and retain a basaltic composition. The compositions of the parental melt and the assimilant heavily influence both how much assimilation is energetically possible in primitive magmas and the final magma composition given typical temperatures. These findings have important implications for the role of assimilation in the generation and evolution of, e.g., ultramafic to mafic trans-Moho magmatic systems, siliceous high-Mg basalts, and massif-type anorthosites.View article: https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article-abstract/doi/10.1130/G49139.1/608089/Thermodynamic-limits-for-assimilation-of-silicate New estimates of the magnitude of the sea-level jump during the 8.2 ka eventJonathan Obrist-Farner; Mark Brenner; Jeffery R. Stone; Marta Wojewódka-Przybył; Thorsten Bauersachs …Abstract: We analyzed sediment cores from coastal Lake Izabal, Guatemala, to infer Holocene biogeochemical changes in the lake. At ca. 8370 calibrated yr B.P. (cal. yr B.P.), marine waters entered the lake, which presently lies ~38 km from the Caribbean coast. Temporal correlation between Early Holocene drainage of high-latitude Lakes Agassiz and Ojibway (in North America) and marine flooding of Lake Izabal suggests a causal link between the two processes. Our data indicate a relative sea-level jump of 2.60 ± 0.88 m, which is larger than previous estimates of sea-level rise during the 8.2 ka event. The inferred sea-level jump, however, cannot be explained solely by the volume of water released during drainage of Lakes Agassiz and Ojibway. Instead, we propose that previous studies underestimated the magnitude of Lakes Agassiz and Ojibway discharge, or that additional meltwater sources contributed to global sea-level rise at that time.View article: https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article-abstract/doi/10.1130/G49296.1/608090/New-estimates-of-the-magnitude-of-the-sea-level New estimates of the magnitude of the sea-level jump during the 8.2 ka eventJonathan Obrist-Farner; Mark Brenner; Jeffery R. Stone; Marta Wojewódka-Przybył; Thorsten Bauersachs …Abstract: We analyzed sediment cores from coastal Lake Izabal, Guatemala, to infer Holocene biogeochemical changes in the lake. At ca. 8370 calibrated yr B.P. (cal. yr B.P.), marine waters entered the lake, which presently lies ~38 km from the Caribbean coast. Temporal correlation between Early Holocene drainage of high-latitude Lakes Agassiz and Ojibway (in North America) and marine flooding of Lake Izabal suggests a causal link between the two processes. Our data indicate a relative sea-level jump of 2.60 ± 0.88 m, which is larger than previous estimates of sea-level rise during the 8.2 ka event. The inferred sea-level jump, however, cannot be explained solely by the volume of water released during drainage of Lakes Agassiz and Ojibway. Instead, we propose that previous studies underestimated the magnitude of Lakes Agassiz and Ojibway discharge, or that additional meltwater sources contributed to global sea-level rise at that time.View article: https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article-abstract/doi/10.1130/G49296.1/608090/New-estimates-of-the-magnitude-of-the-sea-level Late Quaternary geochronologic record of soil formation and erosion: Effects of climate change on Mojave Desert hillslopes (Nevada, USA)L.P. Persico; L.D. McFadden; J.R. McAuliffe; T.M. Rittenour; T.E. Stahlecker …Abstract: Climate change is an often-cited control on geomorphic processes in the arid southwestern United States, but links to direct climatic factors and vegetation change remain under debate. Hillslopes at a site in the eastern Mojave Desert in southern Nevada are mantled by 0–1.5 m of colluvial deposits. Accumulation of weathered bedrock combined with eolian inputs of fine sand and silt led to the formation of well-developed soil profiles. Surface sediments from both sources were incorporated into colluvium, allowing both processes to be dated with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). OSL ages indicate a period of increased colluviation in the Late Pleistocene facilitated by enhanced bedrock weathering and dust deposition. Hillslope aspect strongly controls predominant soil environments and associated vegetation. Well-developed soils with dense grass cover extensively mantle the mesic north-aspect hillslopes, while more xeric south-aspect hillslopes are dominated by thin colluvium with minimal soil development, extensive bedrock exposure, and desertscrub vegetation. Remnants of older colluvium with moderately developed soils on south aspects, however, indicate they were once more extensively mantled by thicker colluvial deposits. The transition to drier conditions in the Holocene diminished vegetation cover on more xeric south aspects, triggering widespread erosion, whereas the more mesic north aspects retained denser grass cover that minimized erosion. The transition to drier conditions in the Holocene altered the vegetation; however, persistent perennial grass cover minimized erosion into the middle Holocene. Increasing aridity during the middle Holocene significantly reduced grass cover on more xeric south aspects, triggering erosion and alluvial deposition. OSL dates of dust incorporated into terrace sediments indicate late Middle Holocene aggradation and soil development in the Late Holocene. In contrast, maintenance of substantial perennial grass cover on mesic north aspects minimized erosion from those hillslopes throughout the Holocene.View article: https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article-abstract/doi/10.1130/G49270.1/608091/Late-Quaternary-geochronologic-record-of-soil Late Quaternary geochronologic record of soil formation and erosion: Effects of climate change on Mojave Desert hillslopes (Nevada, USA)L.P. Persico; L.D. McFadden; J.R. McAuliffe; T.M. Rittenour; T.E. Stahlecker …Abstract: Climate change is an often-cited control on geomorphic processes in the arid southwestern United States, but links to direct climatic factors and vegetation change remain under debate. Hillslopes at a site in the eastern Mojave Desert in southern Nevada are mantled by 0–1.5 m of colluvial deposits. Accumulation of weathered bedrock combined with eolian inputs of fine sand and silt led to the formation of well-developed soil profiles. Surface sediments from both sources were incorporated into colluvium, allowing both processes to be dated with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). OSL ages indicate a period of increased colluviation in the Late Pleistocene facilitated by enhanced bedrock weathering and dust deposition. Hillslope aspect strongly controls predominant soil environments and associated vegetation. Well-developed soils with dense grass cover extensively mantle the mesic north-aspect hillslopes, while more xeric south-aspect hillslopes are dominated by thin colluvium with minimal soil development, extensive bedrock exposure, and desertscrub vegetation. Remnants of older colluvium with moderately developed soils on south aspects, however, indicate they were once more extensively mantled by thicker colluvial deposits. The transition to drier conditions in the Holocene diminished vegetation cover on more xeric south aspects, triggering widespread erosion, whereas the more mesic north aspects retained denser grass cover that minimized erosion. The transition to drier conditions in the Holocene altered the vegetation; however, persistent perennial grass cover minimized erosion into the middle Holocene. Increasing aridity during the middle Holocene significantly reduced grass cover on more xeric south aspects, triggering erosion and alluvial deposition. OSL dates of dust incorporated into terrace sediments indicate late Middle Holocene aggradation and soil development in the Late Holocene. In contrast, maintenance of substantial perennial grass cover on mesic north aspects minimized erosion from those hillslopes throughout the Holocene.View article: https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article-abstract/doi/10.1130/G49270.1/608091/Late-Quaternary-geochronologic-record-of-soil Guttulatic calcite: A carbonate microtexture that reveals frigid formation conditionsEva L. Scheller; John Grotzinger; Miquela IngallsAbstract: The paragenesis of carbonate pseudomorphic textures in the rock record that are inferred to represent replaced metastable ikaite (CaCO3·6H2O), which forms at frigid temperatures, is uncertain. Petrographic analysis of Mono Lake (California, USA) Pleistocene tufas allowed recognition of a distinctive calcite microtexture, termed guttulatic calcite, that forms during carbonate dehydration and is diagnostic for precursor ikaite. The texture is characterized by pseudo-hexagonal or spherical low-Mg cores, which likely formed initially as vaterite, with an ellipsoidal overgrowth, and a secondary high-Mg sparry or micritic cement. Observations of Mono Lake ikaite pseudomorphs, combined with a review of more ancient examples, indicate that guttulatic texture records carbonate dehydration of precursor ikaite and can be used to infer frigid paleotemperatures.View article: https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article-abstract/doi/10.1130/G49312.1/607791/Guttulatic-calcite-A-carbonate-microtexture-that Guttulatic calcite: A carbonate microtexture that reveals frigid formation conditionsEva L. Scheller; John Grotzinger; Miquela IngallsAbstract: The paragenesis of carbonate pseudomorphic textures in the rock record that are inferred to represent replaced metastable ikaite (CaCO3·6H2O), which forms at frigid temperatures, is uncertain. Petrographic analysis of Mono Lake (California, USA) Pleistocene tufas allowed recognition of a distinctive calcite microtexture, termed guttulatic calcite, that forms during carbonate dehydration and is diagnostic for precursor ikaite. The texture is characterized by pseudo-hexagonal or spherical low-Mg cores, which likely formed initially as vaterite, with an ellipsoidal overgrowth, and a secondary high-Mg sparry or micritic cement. Observations of Mono Lake ikaite pseudomorphs, combined with a review of more ancient examples, indicate that guttulatic texture records carbonate dehydration of precursor ikaite and can be used to infer frigid paleotemperatures.View article: https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article-abstract/doi/10.1130/G49312.1/607791/Guttulatic-calcite-A-carbonate-microtexture-that Mantle heating at ca. 2 Ga by continental insulation: Evidence from granites and eclogitesR. Tamblyn; D. Hasterok; M. Hand; M. GardAbstract: Igneous and metamorphic rocks contain the mineralogical and geochemical record of thermally driven processes on Earth. The generally accepted thermal budget of the mantle indicates a steady cooling trend since the Archean. The geological record, however, indicates this simple cooling model may not hold true. Subduction-related eclogites substantially emerge in the rock record from 2.1 Ga to 1.8 Ga, indicating that average mantle thermal conditions cooled below a critical threshold for widespread eclogite preservation. Following this period, eclogite disappeared again until ca. 1.1 Ga. Coincident with the transient emergence of eclogite, global granite chemistry recorded a decrease in Sr and Eu and increases in yttrium and heavy rare earth element (HREE) concentrations. These changes are most simply explained by warming of the thermal regime associated with granite genesis. We suggest that warming was caused by increased continental insulation of the mantle at this time. Ultimately, secular cooling of the mantle overcame insulation, allowing the second emergence and preservation of eclogite from ca. 1.1 Ga until present.View article: https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article-abstract/doi/10.1130/G49288.1/607792/Mantle-heating-at-ca-2-Ga-by-continental Mantle heating at ca. 2 Ga by continental insulation: Evidence from granites and eclogitesR. Tamblyn; D. Hasterok; M. Hand; M. GardAbstract: Igneous and metamorphic rocks contain the mineralogical and geochemical record of thermally driven processes on Earth. The generally accepted thermal budget of the mantle indicates a steady cooling trend since the Archean. The geological record, however, indicates this simple cooling model may not hold true. Subduction-related eclogites substantially emerge in the rock record from 2.1 Ga to 1.8 Ga, indicating that average mantle thermal conditions cooled below a critical threshold for widespread eclogite preservation. Following this period, eclogite disappeared again until ca. 1.1 Ga. Coincident with the transient emergence of eclogite, global granite chemistry recorded a decrease in Sr and Eu and increases in yttrium and heavy rare earth element (HREE) concentrations. These changes are most simply explained by warming of the thermal regime associated with granite genesis. We suggest that warming was caused by increased continental insulation of the mantle at this time. Ultimately, secular cooling of the mantle overcame insulation, allowing the second emergence and preservation of eclogite from ca. 1.1 Ga until present.View article: https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article-abstract/doi/10.1130/G49288.1/607792/Mantle-heating-at-ca-2-Ga-by-continental Rivers in reverse: Upstream-migrating dechannelization and flooding cause avulsions on fluvial fansDouglas A. Edmonds; Harrison K. Martin; Jeffery M. Valenza; Riley Henson; Gary S. Weissmann …Abstract: The process of river avulsion builds floodplains and fills alluvial basins. We report on a new style of river avulsion identified in the Landsat satellite record. We found 69 examples of retrogradational avulsions on rivers of densely forested fluvial fans in the Andean and New Guinean alluvial basins. Retrogradational avulsions are initiated by a channel blockage, e.g., a logjam, that fills the channel with sediment and forces water overbank (dechannelization), which creates a chevron-shaped flooding pattern. Dechannelization waves travel upstream at a median rate of 387 m/yr and last on average for 13 yr; many rivers show multiple dechannelizing events on the same reach. Dechannelization ends and the avulsion is complete when the river finds a new flow path. We simulate upstreammigrating dechannelization with a one-dimensional morphodynamic model for open channel flow. Observations are consistent with model results and show that channel blockages can cause dechannelization on steep (10–2 to 10–3), low-discharge (~101 m3 s–1) rivers. This illustrates a new style of floodplain sedimentation that is unaccounted for in ecologic and stratigraphic models.View article: https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article-abstract/doi/10.1130/G49318.1/607793/Rivers-in-reverse-Upstream-migrating Rivers in reverse: Upstream-migrating dechannelization and flooding cause avulsions on fluvial fansDouglas A. Edmonds; Harrison K. Martin; Jeffery M. Valenza; Riley Henson; Gary S. Weissmann …Abstract: The process of river avulsion builds floodplains and fills alluvial basins. We report on a new style of river avulsion identified in the Landsat satellite record. We found 69 examples of retrogradational avulsions on rivers of densely forested fluvial fans in the Andean and New Guinean alluvial basins. Retrogradational avulsions are initiated by a channel blockage, e.g., a logjam, that fills the channel with sediment and forces water overbank (dechannelization), which creates a chevron-shaped flooding pattern. Dechannelization waves travel upstream at a median rate of 387 m/yr and last on average for 13 yr; many rivers show multiple dechannelizing events on the same reach. Dechannelization ends and the avulsion is complete when the river finds a new flow path. We simulate upstreammigrating dechannelization with a one-dimensional morphodynamic model for open channel flow. Observations are consistent with model results and show that channel blockages can cause dechannelization on steep (10–2 to 10–3), low-discharge (~101 m3 s–1) rivers. This illustrates a new style of floodplain sedimentation that is unaccounted for in ecologic and stratigraphic models.View article: https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article-abstract/doi/10.1130/G49318.1/607793/Rivers-in-reverse-Upstream-migrating

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