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A selfie set in stone: hidden portrait by cheeky mason found in Spain 900 years on he’s a medieval in-shaggy dog story, a male figure carved in the early 12th century for one of the vital world’s top of the line cathedrals, but nobody has regular of his existence in the past. The figure has gone ignored via hundreds of thousands of worshippers who have made the lengthy pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, north-western Spain over the centuries. He has looked down on them from the suitable of one of the various pillars that jump upwards, each and every adorned with carved foliage, amongst which he’s concealed. Now he has been discovered through a British paintings pupil who believes that he turned into really never meant to be considered as a result of he is a self-portrait of a stonemason who labored on the cathedral in the twelfth century. “You locate this in medieval constructions,” Dr Jennifer Alexander told the Observer. “They’re usually in dark corners where most effective one other stonemason would find them. This one is in somewhat of the constructing the place you’d ought to be a stonemason to be up there to see it. It’s tucked away in among an entire set of capitals [the top of a column] that are otherwise undeniable. best the masons creating the building may see the determine. image: Courtesy of Jennifer Alexander “It’s just such an enthralling connection between us and the grownup that carved it. It’s essentially as if it changed into designed just for us to peer it through these individuals engaged on the constructing. Of path, this stonemason doubtless had no thought that he’d ought to wait so lengthy to be noticed.” regardless of the supreme skill of such craftsmen, they have been completely nameless, their names lost to heritage. this is the closest the mason bought to signing his work. Alexander, a reader in paintings history on the institution of Warwick, is a expert in the architectural heritage of the amazing church buildings and cathedrals of the medieval period. She discovered the determine in conducting an tricky survey of Santiago de Compostela cathedral, a Unesco world heritage site. Its importance lies in its affiliation with the Camino, the pilgrimage across hundreds of miles to attain the shrine of the apostle St James, which is in the cathedral. Such is its draw that. in 2019 on my own, the professional variety of pilgrims attaining the city was some 350,000. The current building become begun within the late eleventh-century and is a masterpiece of Romanesque architecture, with later additions. Alexander changed into conducting a stone-through-stone analysis to work out its development sequence, in a mission funded by way of the Galician regional govt. It became when she became gaining knowledge of the capitals, about 13 metres above the pavement, that “this little determine popped out”, she recalled. Dr Jennifer Alexander conducted a stone-by-stone analysis within the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela. photo: Rose Adamson. “an exquisite image of a chap putting on to the center of the capital as if his lifestyles trusted it. It’s in a row of similar off-the-peg capitals the place they’ve been knocking them out in granite – ‘we want an additional 15 of that design’ – and all of sudden there’s one which’s diverse. So we think it’s the man himself. “He emerges out of the capital and is clinging to it. It’s basically as if it’s swallowing him up.” The carved determine, which is set 30cm excessive, is depicted right down to his waist. Alexander referred to: “He’s bought a pleasant little smile. He’s completely happy with himself. He’s splendidly carved, with a strongly characterised face.” Medieval stonemasons discovered their craft via apprenticeships that educated them in the lower back-breaking trade of slicing stone or the usage of templates to create complicated mouldings round doorways and different openings. probably the most promising masons would be taught geometry in order that they may design plans and manipulate development websites. Alexander noted: “These masters had to have many potential since they have been additionally responsible for engineering, give of materials, hiring the workforce and dealing with the consumer, who should be would becould very well be a senior member of the clergy or the the Aristocracy.” She delivered that such craftsmen have remained nameless during the centuries even into greater contemporary instances: “when they had been constructing Liverpool cathedral in the 20th century, they posted lists of the craftsmen that labored on the building and that they by no means mentioned stonemasons. So these are the unsung geniuses.” Taming mask Metrology For years the IC trade has worried about a bevy of considerations with the photomask. mask prices are the exact subject, however mask complexity, write instances and defect inspection are the different key issues for both optical and EUV photomasks. Now, masks metrology, the science of measuring the key parameters on the mask, is fitting a brand new challenge. On this front, masks makers are concerned about the crucial dimensions (CDs), registration and different considerations on the photomask. The CDs contain the function dimensions on the masks. The tool that measures the CDs is called a vital-dimension scanning electron microscope (CD-SEM). in the meantime, registration offers with the correct placement of the elements on the masks. typically, registration metrology handles the registration and overlay concerns. after all, masks metrologists face a number of challenges. First, the mask is fitting greater complex and the facets are becoming smaller at every node. 2nd, the specs have become tighter. Third, the number of masks per masks-set are expanding at each and every node. and eventually, each masks layer within the mask-set need to be perfectly aligned. because of these traits, mask makers should take more measurements than ever earlier than with the various metrology tools. “The measurement numbers per mask are exploding. We may additionally measure the masks at 200 places, however some valued clientele need to measure 5,000 places,” talked about Naoya Hayashi, a fellow at Dai Nippon Printing (DNP). “There is not most effective the CD, however additionally registration overlay. perpetually we measure the overlay alignment mark outside the chip. Now clients want the accurate measurement interior the die. It could be in a thousand areas.” The deserve to take extra measurements on the masks interprets into time and cash for customers. “For CD measurements, increasing dimension points make for longer TATs and better can charge,” Hayashi stated. TAT, or turnaround time, refers back to the cycle time to fabricate a masks. The TAT goes up at each and every node. as an example, it takes 3 times longer to make a 22nm masks compared to a 250nm reticle, based on experts. So the big query is clear: Can the current metrology tools keep up amid the shift against more advanced masks? as it turns out, masks makers could make do with their existing metrology equipment, but they even have a desire record. close time period, the photomask industry wants quicker metrology tools with in-die capabilities. And in the future, they want multi-beam metrology equipment, CD-SEMs with simulation capabilities and excessive ultraviolet (EUV) metrology. Some of these equipment have become a reality, while still others may also in no way seem. The problem is cash, as there’s a shortfall of funding for metrology know-how in widespread. mask metrology challengesManufactured in what’s called a masks store, the photomask is a template or master reproduction of what may be printed on the ultimate wafer. frequently, an optical mask carries an opaque layer of chrome on a glass substrate. in the masks production move, the 1st step is to reap the information from a given IC design. Then, the records is fed into an e-beam masks-writing device, which converts it into a sample on the masks. And that’s the place the issues start for mask makers. The facts itself corresponds to a given lithography know-how used within the fab. in the fab, chipmakers are extending optical lithography at advanced nodes amid delays for EUV lithography. “EUV isn’t going to be purchasable in any meaningful manner before 7nm,” pointed out Dave Hemker, senior vp and chief technology officer at LAM research. “numerous patterning has been occurring for awhile. Now, you are on the grounds that becoming greater pervasive. you’re seeing a movement from double-, to triple-, to quad-patterning.” So, to cope with the diffraction issues in optical, masks makers must use a lot of reticle enhancement concepts (RETs) on the mask. One RET, called optical proximity correction (OPC), is used to alter the mask patterns to enhance the printability on the wafer. OPC makes use of tiny sub-resolution support elements (SRAFs) on the masks. So for today’s optical masks, the traits are clear. “The patterns and the variety of patterns are expanding,” observed So-Eun Shin Lee, a researcher from Samsung. Others agree. “The masks shapes received smaller and greater complex as we went to 14nm, and it’ll proceed to get smaller and much more complex at 10nm,” talked about Aki Fujimura, chief executive of D2S. “although the leading facets being written are the same size as earlier than, the manner window required is more desirable. this will enhance the demand on OPC to carry more and more complicated shapes. The minimal SRAF sizes might be smaller than 60nm, and the shapes expected on the mask after the process blur will be much less and fewer orthogonal 1D points, and further and further curvilinear shapes. OPC will output rectilinear shapes, but the jog sizes are small satisfactory that the anticipated masks shapes will be curvilinear.” meanwhile, after the mask is patterned, the masks goes right here steps so as—etch, mask repair, inspection and metrology. certainly, inspection and metrology are the important thing constituents of the circulate. If there is a defect or a problem on the mask, it is going to get printed on the final wafer. And as masks become extra complex, the developments are getting more apparent. “you’re spending a lot of time with metrology and inspection,” spoke of Thomas Faure, a technical body of workers member at GlobalFoundries, on the fresh SPIE Photomask conference. truly, the whole time for inspection and metrology for a mask may run some 18 hours nowadays, which is roughly double the amount of time as compared to a couple of years in the past. often, a number one-aspect mask is inspected for defects at least 3 times right through the movement. Then, in the metrology flow, the global and systematic error sources are addressed. Then, focal point shifts to the native and/or scorching spot mistakes on the masks. All advised, a large volume of measurement facts is required to kind out the problems. The solutionsThe industry is taking a number of steps to remedy the problems. On the CD aspect of the equation, masks makers use CD-SEMs, which use electron beams to form images of tiny structures at excessive magnifications. The CD-SEM is enough to measure average mask shapes. however the CD-SEM is struggling to keep up amid the shift towards greater advanced patterns and shapes on the mask. Most advanced mask patterns don’t have uniform CDs after OPC or inverse lithography. additionally, the variety of masks defect considerations flagged all over mask inspection raises, however no longer all of those will truly outcomes in yield complications on the wafer. So for complex masks, the CD-SEM requires new capabilities. “It requires 3D litho simulation with 3D SEM imaging,” talked about Takayuki Nakamura, well-known supervisor of Nanotechnology business Division at Advantest, a agency of CD-SEMs and different device. To enhance the CD-SEM, D2S has partnered with Advantest to combine D2S’ wafer plane evaluation engine into Advantest’s E3640 line of CD-SEMs. This, in turn, offers two new capabilities for the CD-SEM—masks plane metrology and wafer plane metrology. “in the new world, you want each,” stated Linyong (Leo) Pang, chief product officer and govt vice president of D2S. “In mask aircraft metrology, as a substitute of measuring CDs, you need to extract the contours that measure facet placement error. so that you are doing second metrology. In wafer aircraft metrology, you in fact convert this lower back to 1D metrology, so that you can measure the CD.” while the industry has solved some of the CD metrology concerns, masks makers nonetheless want to conduct extra measurements at a quicker expense. For this, mask makers need a more innovative device—a multi-beam e-beam metrology device. a number of toolmakers are setting up multi-beam techniques for wafer and EUV masks inspection. however a potential multi-beam gadget is not expected to appear for a couple of years. besides CD metrology, there’s a need to measure the position of the points on the masks. For this, photomask makers use registration metrology. In elementary terms, a tool areas a huge number of markers on the mask. The markers are measured and then averaged, which in flip exhibits the registration error. “often, in the mask, we can not investigate cross-check in every single place,” noted Banqiu Wu, principal member of the technical staff and chief expertise officer for the masks and TSV Etch Division at utilized substances. “You simplest measure some aspects. We anticipate if we handle this enviornment once we design the masks, we will control the whole aspect. but because of sample density, and proximity results, maybe we need more size elements.” mask makers may wish to take extra measurements because the specs get tighter. for instance, the subsequent-generation registration spec is around 2.5nm, in comparison to 5.4nm just 5 years ago, based on specialists. There are other concerns. The registration challenges are starting to be because of multi-patterning. So, the trade wants quicker and greater correct registration metrology tools. “it’s more and more clear that the tight wafer process window is basically altering each where we measure and the way many pursuits we need to measure on photomasks,” spoke of Yalin Xiong, frequent manager of the Reticle products Division at KLA-Tencor. generally, registration equipment don’t always conduct the measurements on the actual machine, however rather on small objects referred to as objectives. targets are pre-fabricated, diffraction-based mostly buildings. The goal mimics the behavior of the gadget. What’s changed is that toolmakers are relocating towards in-die registration. In-die puts the pursuits on the genuine device, which permits better correlations between the a number of measurements. KLA-Tencor, for one, these days rolled out an in-die registration device. “The solution must explicitly handle the challenges we are facing, besides the scaling of dimension accuracy and precision,” Xiong mentioned. “we are proposing dimension no longer simplest for diverse on-device patterns on the same masks, but we’re doing this two to 3 times quicker than earlier than.” Metrology for optical masks is difficult sufficient. To be sure, metrology for EUV masks is daunting. For EUV, the SRAF sizes on the masks latitude from 32nm to 40nm, compared to 60nm for optical, in keeping with Peter Buck, supervisor of MDP and platform options at Mentor portraits. masks makers may well be in a position to use their latest metrology tools for EUV masks. however is that adequate? “Metrology requirements for EUV masks are not well understood, however will doubtless require extra options to measure masks form, reflectivity at EUV wavelength, and absorber side wall angles,” KLA-Tencor’s Xiong referred to. The respectable information is that the business is engaged on a brand new category of EUV metrology equipment. however even with existing and future metrology tools, EUV mask TATs, together with fees, will doubtless soar. Oppenheimer Sees These three stocks Skyrocketing Over one hundred% From existing levels The U.S. presidential election has come to a detailed, and Wall road isn’t adversarial to the administration alternate. last week saw the S&P 500 notch its second-ideal performance all through an election week on record, even as Trump’s possibilities of getting re-elected grew to become slimer and slimer. Weighing in for Oppenheimer, Chief investment Strategist John Stoltzfus cited, “What seems clear to this point is that the fairness markets are not averse to a change of administration stateside as a minimum as long as the Republicans maintain handle over the Senate. assessments and balances ‘on the Hill’ had been prevalent to be vital to buyers over the direction of background. The existing in our view isn’t any exception.” there is, however, some uncertainty surrounding the Senate, with both runoff elections for seats in Georgia scheduled for January 5, only 15 days before Inauguration Day. That stated, Stoltzfus facets out that persisted more suitable-than-expected Q3 effects from S&P 500-listed agencies, economic information tied to job positive factors and a pointy decline within the unemployment expense have also been helping to prop shares up. Taking Stoltzfus’ outlook into consideration, we wanted to take a closer study three stocks incomes a round of applause from Oppenheimer, with the company’s analysts forecasting over one hundred% upside talents for each and every. the use of TipRanks’ database, we realized that the relaxation of the highway is in contract, as all three boast a “powerful buy” analyst consensus.   Strongbridge Biopharma (SBBP) First up we have Strongbridge Biopharma, which is focused on constructing treatment options for infrequent illnesses with large unmet wants. ahead of a key regulatory submitting, Oppenheimer believes that SBBP’s $2.12 share fee reflects an attractive entry point. Representing the firm, analyst Hartaj Singh facets out that investor focus has landed squarely on Recorlev, the enterprise’s investigational cortisol synthesis inhibitor, in Cushing’s syndrome. The business is gearing as much as file an NDA for the therapy in Q1 2021, and the analyst is confident about its capabilities approval. Story continues in the LOGICS look at, the therapy met its fundamental endpoint, with SBBP reporting the number of cases of a loss of suggest urinary free cortisol (mUFC) response changed into fifty four.5% larger amongst patients who withdrew to placebo versus people who remained on Recorlev. moreover, there become a speedy reversibility of the Recorlev medication benefits on ldl cholesterol following the swap to placebo given the 8-week time body. meanwhile, within the SONICS examine, a big benefit on mUFC normalization was accompanied in 30% of the sufferers and a few cardiovascular secondary measures. it would also be referred to that not one of the 44 sufferers who were randomized discontinued as a result of antagonistic events. “post-LOGICS, we proceed to view Recorlev as a differentiated remedy for Cushing’s, both compared to off-label ketoconazole and the branded remedy landscape. management reiterated its confidence in the drug’s positioning, according to market research with payors and physicians. Given LOGICS reaffirming the scientific improvement profile accompanied in SONICS, we are encouraged by using its knowledge to develop into a mainstay treatment for the sickness,” Singh explained. What’s extra, administration is not looking ahead to an AdComm meeting, and Singh thinks hypothesis on labeling each from a safety and efficacy point of view may additionally increase previous to the advantage PDUFA resolution. To this end, he expects extra visibility because the NDA submitting and acceptance gets nearer. adding to the respectable news, the launch of Keveyis, the enterprise’s FDA-authorised medicine for hyperkalemic, hypokalemic and related variations of fundamental Periodic Paralysis (an ultra-rare neuromuscular disorder), is progressing well regardless of the COVID-19 pandemic, according to Singh. “With quarterly income of ~$eight.0 million, above our estimate of ~$7.8 million, the growing to be trajectory of the launch has been encouraging, with additional room for long-term growth highlighted by way of management. We count on extra credit score could be ascribed to these efforts, following extra updates from existence-cycle administration recommendations,” the analyst commented. To this conclusion, Singh costs SBBP shares an Outperform (i.e. purchase) along with a $7 expense goal. What’s in it for buyers? Upside talents of 233%. (to watch Singh’s tune checklist, click on here) All in all, other analysts echo Singh’s sentiment. 3 Buys and no Holds or Sells add as much as a robust buy consensus ranking. With a normal price target of $8, the upside abilities is available in at 272%. (See SBBP inventory evaluation on TipRanks) Molecular Templates (MTEM) Molecular Templates works to convey the next technology of immunotoxins referred to as engineered toxin our bodies (ETBs), that are a novel category of therapeutics with unique biology and a differentiated mechanism of action, to market. however one in every of its trials turned into put on a partial scientific hang, Oppenheimer nonetheless believes its long-time period growth narrative is strong. The phase 2 monotherapy trial evaluating lead candidate MT-3724, an ETB that pursuits CD20 (a B-cell marker that is expressed in ninety percent of B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL)), changed into placed on partial medical cling on November 4 following a treatment-connected fatality. management pointed to capillary leak syndrome (CLS) as the reason for the patient demise. MT-3724 is being evaluated in three ongoing phase 2 trials, one monotherapy and two aggregate. it is going to be stated that six sufferers (fatality patient and five handled in DLBCL monotherapy look at) obtained the drug from the identical batch, and the first 5 completed the study without proof of CLS. Later PK evaluation discovered peak drug exposure (Cmax) 3-4x expected ranges in 5 out of six patients receiving the remedy from the lot. administration plans to examine what caused the higher Cmax tiers. Oppenheimer’s Kevin DeGeeter advised consumers, “we’d seem to accumulate MTEM shares into any weak point according to expectation: 1) manufacturing batch inconsistency may additionally have resulted in excess Cmax in limited number of sufferers providing clear route to remedy the difficulty, 2) constrained read via on immunogenicity from MT-3724 (only product on first-gen ETB backbone) to other pipeline programs, and 3) guarded expectation for business chance of MT-3724 in advance of clinical hang with market opportunity focused essentially on salvage sufferers.” although the CLS is decided to be dose-linked, the five-big name analyst argues there may nonetheless be a route forward for MT-3724, because the monotherapy study is evaluating a dose of fifty µg/kg while combination reviews are assessing a ten-25 µg/kg dose. Reflecting yet another fine, the cling doesn’t influence reports for items on the second-technology ETB spine, together with MT-5111, TAK-169 and MT-6402. furthermore, the company is decided to provide a medical update on CTX001, a potential treatment for sickle mobilephone disorder (SCD). DeGeeter opined, “Our investment thesis is based, as a minimum partially, on endured partnering of ETB platform to gigantic biotechs for goals outdoor of MTEM’s core oncology focal point. regardless of the medical dangle on MT-3724, MTEM remains in energetic discussions with knowledge partners. we’d view further partnering deals as validation of the platform’s universal safeguard profile.” in keeping with his optimistic approach, DeGeeter rates MTEM an Outperform (i.e. buy) along with a $20 fee target. This figure suggests 123% upside talents from latest stages. (to watch DeGeeter’s music checklist, click on right here) Are other analysts in settlement? they are. simplest purchase ratings, 3 to be actual, were issued in the final three months. hence, the message is clear: MTEM is a powerful buy. Given the $18.33 commonplace price goal, shares could soar 108% within the next year. (See MTEM stock analysis on TipRanks) Provention Bio (PRVB) on the forefront of the autoimmune sickness house, Provention Bio is working to enrich the lives of sufferers from everywhere the realm. With the company making massive headway in its efforts to gain popularity of one of its treatments, Oppenheimer thinks that now could be the time to snap up shares. On November 2, Provention Bio announced that the rolling submission of a BLA to the FDA for regulatory approval of teplizumab for the delay or prevention of clinical category 1 diabetes (T1D) in at-possibility individuals had been achieved. The submission covered chemistry, manufacturing and controls (CMC) and administrative assistance modules. Now, the FDA has 60 days to assessment the ultimate submission to examine if the BLA is comprehensive, and then, a PDUFA date can be set. Writing for Oppenheimer, analyst Justin Kim aspects out that the BLA acceptance might be a key milestone for PRVB. “We accept as true with the exterior validation and evaluate of the software would replicate favorably on the enormous efforts Provention has made towards completion of this filing, particularly manufacturing scale-up. As a potential advisory committee assembly and regulatory resolution present in consequence stronger validation, we believe into these routine in response to teplizumab’s based clinical profile.” Going ahead, Kim believes the therapy’s commercialization will become a critical theme in 2021. in keeping with teplizumab’s 14-day infusion cycle, logistics and general practitioner/patient reception of the modality, chiefly all over the COVID-19 pandemic, are attracting major consideration, according to the analyst. should the candidate eventually be granted approval, screening and recognition work could reflect a major tailwind, in Kim’s opinion. With it already having based significant relationships across key T1D advocacy agencies and foundations, “Provention is well-located and related to construct momentum for screening and identification initiatives.” The analyst brought, “while the hurdle to execute correctly is excessive, reward, in our view, can be commensurate.” When it involves the lengthy-term chance, “the TN-10 inhabitants criteria” continues to be a key area of focus for Kim, as “these opportunities may additionally no longer simplest expand the market probability for teplizumab however additionally greatly solidify its positioning the medicine paradigm.” He additionally mentions that re-dosing paradigms and adjunctive use publish-transplant for teplizumab are other aspects of electricity. Summing all of it up, Kim stated, “PRVB is still underappreciated in our universe, potentially given macro topics around COVID-19 and intensified focus on momentum names. although, as persevered execution consists of PRVB through a success regulatory, pre-business, and commercial milestones, we agree with the shares may enter a duration of tremendous re-rating.” every thing that PRVB has going for it brought on Kim to go away his Outperform (i.e. buy) score as is. together with the call, he keeps the fee target at $29, suggesting 106% upside competencies. (to monitor Kim’s music listing, click on here) Turning to the rest of the road, the bulls have it on this one. With four Buys and no Holds or Sells assigned in the closing three months, the note in the street is that PRVB is a robust purchase. At $28.75, the general cost target implies 104% upside talents. (See PRVB inventory evaluation on TipRanks) To discover respectable ideas for stocks trading at pleasing valuations, seek advice from TipRanks’ optimal stocks to buy, a newly launched device that unites all of TipRanks’ fairness insights. Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in this article are totally those of the featured analysts. The content material is meant to be used for informational purposes best. It is very vital to do your personal analysis earlier than making any investment..