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Meteorological Conditions & Ozone in the Polar Stratosphere

NOAA monitors meteorological conditions and ozone amounts in the stratosphere. On this page we present graphics to aid in visualizing the evolution of the South Polar “ozone hole” and factors important for ozone depletion in the polar areas. Several other web pages (see links) discuss the processes of ozone depletion. Here we provide information on the size of the polar vortex, the size of the ozone hole, the size of the area where air is cold enough to form Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs), and which parts of this cold air are sunlit such that photo-chemical ozone depletion processes can occur. In addition, the latitudinal-time cross sections shows the thermal evolution at all latitudes. Meteorological Conditions & Ozone in the Polar Stratosphere

NOAA monitors meteorological conditions and ozone amounts in the stratosphere. On this page we present graphics to aid in visualizing the evolution of the South Polar “ozone hole” and factors important for ozone depletion in the polar areas. Several other web pages (see links) discuss the processes of ozone depletion. Here we provide information on the size of the polar vortex, the size of the ozone hole, the size of the area where air is cold enough to form Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs), and which parts of this cold air are sunlit such that photo-chemical ozone depletion processes can occur. In addition, the latitudinal-time cross sections shows the thermal evolution at all latitudes. Ozone Hole SizePlots update August through December each year.This figure shows the progress of the size of the ozone hole in comparison to other years. Ozone hole size for previous years: 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990, 1989, 1988, 1987, 1986, 1985, 1984, 1983, 1982, 1981, 1980-79 Ozone Hole SizePlots update August through December each year.This figure shows the progress of the size of the ozone hole in comparison to other years. Ozone hole size for previous years: 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990, 1989, 1988, 1987, 1986, 1985, 1984, 1983, 1982, 1981, 1980-79 Southern Hemisphere Total Ozone AnalysesThese maps shows the most recent analayis of the Southern Hemsisphere total ozone from the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) instrument on board the S-NPP and NOAA JPSS polar orbiting satellites. In austral spring the analyses show the “ozone hole” (values below 220 Dobson Units)over Antarctica and the Antarctic Ocean. This area of low ozone is confined by the polar vortex. Usually circular in August and September, the vortex tends to elongate in October, stretching towards inhabited areas of South America. By November, the polar vortex begins to weaken and ozone rich air begins to mix with the air in the “ozone hole” region. The “ozone hole” is usually gone by late November/early December. Southern Hemisphere Total Ozone AnalysesThese maps shows the most recent analayis of the Southern Hemsisphere total ozone from the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) instrument on board the S-NPP and NOAA JPSS polar orbiting satellites. In austral spring the analyses show the “ozone hole” (values below 220 Dobson Units)over Antarctica and the Antarctic Ocean. This area of low ozone is confined by the polar vortex. Usually circular in August and September, the vortex tends to elongate in October, stretching towards inhabited areas of South America. By November, the polar vortex begins to weaken and ozone rich air begins to mix with the air in the “ozone hole” region. The “ozone hole” is usually gone by late November/early December. The OMPS instruments can not make observations in the polar night region because they relies upon bascscattered sun light. The blank area centered over the pole represents the latitudes in which no observations can be made. The OMPS instruments can not make observations in the polar night region because they relies upon bascscattered sun light. The blank area centered over the pole represents the latitudes in which no observations can be made. Erythemal UV-B Daily Dosage (Estimate)Influenced by depleted ozone within the Ozone Hole, surface UV-B radiation amounts can reach levels found only in the tropics. This map shows the estimated daily dosage of erythemally weighted UV radiation. This estimate is based upon the first 24 1-hour NOAA/EPA UV Index forecasts. The UV Index forecast values are assumed constant over the hour of each of the 24 1-hour forecasts. The daily dosage is then the sum of all 24 1-hour forecasts. The UV Index forecast is quite accurate for the first 24 hours. The UV Index forecast takes under consideration the total column ozone amount, the sun-earth orientation, the surface elevation, the enhancement effects of snow and ice, aerosol scattering (using a seasonal global climatology), and cloud UV transmission. Erythemal UV-B Daily Dosage (Estimate)Influenced by depleted ozone within the Ozone Hole, surface UV-B radiation amounts can reach levels found only in the tropics. This map shows the estimated daily dosage of erythemally weighted UV radiation. This estimate is based upon the first 24 1-hour NOAA/EPA UV Index forecasts. The UV Index forecast values are assumed constant over the hour of each of the 24 1-hour forecasts. The daily dosage is then the sum of all 24 1-hour forecasts. The UV Index forecast is quite accurate for the first 24 hours. The UV Index forecast takes under consideration the total column ozone amount, the sun-earth orientation, the surface elevation, the enhancement effects of snow and ice, aerosol scattering (using a seasonal global climatology), and cloud UV transmission. South Polar Vertical Ozone ProfileThis figure shows the vertical profile of ozone over the South Pole when the “ozone hole” becomes well established. Nearly complete ozone depletion occurs between 13 km and 23 km, where extremely low temperatures support the heterogeneous photo-chemical destruction of ozone. But, above and below these heights the air temperature is not low enough for this type of ozone destruction, and ozone amounts remain virtually unchanged. The most recent ozone soundings from the South Pole are available from NOAA’s Earth System Research Laboratory – Global Monitoring Division – South Pole Ozone Hole Monitoring. South Polar Vertical Ozone ProfileThis figure shows the vertical profile of ozone over the South Pole when the “ozone hole” becomes well established. Nearly complete ozone depletion occurs between 13 km and 23 km, where extremely low temperatures support the heterogeneous photo-chemical destruction of ozone. But, above and below these heights the air temperature is not low enough for this type of ozone destruction, and ozone amounts remain virtually unchanged. The most recent ozone soundings from the South Pole are available from NOAA’s Earth System Research Laboratory – Global Monitoring Division – South Pole Ozone Hole Monitoring. Time series of the size of the S.H. polar vortex at 450K.Plots update April through December each year.Air parcels move on isentropic surfaces (surfaces of equal potential temperature) rather than pressure surfaces. The 450 K surface in the south polar area lies between the 70 mb and 50 mb pressure surfaces. This is near the altitude where ozone is in greatest abundance in the vertical profile. This figure shows the size of the polar vortex with respect to previous years. The polar vortex defines the area in which cold polar air is trapped by the very strong winds of the Polar Night Jet. During the winter/spring period, when the polar vortex is strongest, air outside of the vortex can not enter. So, because the warm air from the mid latitudes can not mix with the cold polar air, the polar air continues to get colder due to radiative loss of heat. Also, when ozone in the vortex is depleted, it is not replenished with ozone rich air from outside the vortex. Not until mid to late Spring does the polar vortex weaken and eventually break down. After this, thorough mixing occurs and ozone amounts are replenished.Previous years: 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990, 1989, 1988, 1987, 1986, 1985, 1984, 1983, 1982, 1981, 1980, 1979 Time series of the size of the S.H. polar vortex at 450K.Plots update April through December each year.Air parcels move on isentropic surfaces (surfaces of equal potential temperature) rather than pressure surfaces. The 450 K surface in the south polar area lies between the 70 mb and 50 mb pressure surfaces. This is near the altitude where ozone is in greatest abundance in the vertical profile. This figure shows the size of the polar vortex with respect to previous years. The polar vortex defines the area in which cold polar air is trapped by the very strong winds of the Polar Night Jet. During the winter/spring period, when the polar vortex is strongest, air outside of the vortex can not enter. So, because the warm air from the mid latitudes can not mix with the cold polar air, the polar air continues to get colder due to radiative loss of heat. Also, when ozone in the vortex is depleted, it is not replenished with ozone rich air from outside the vortex. Not until mid to late Spring does the polar vortex weaken and eventually break down. After this, thorough mixing occurs and ozone amounts are replenished.Previous years: 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990, 1989, 1988, 1987, 1986, 1985, 1984, 1983, 1982, 1981, 1980, 1979 Time series of the size of the S.H. polar vortex at 550K.Plots update April through December each year.The 550 K surface in the south polar area lies between the 50 mb and 30 mb pressure surfaces. This is near or slightly above the altitude where ozone is in greatest abundance in the vertical profile. See the Vortex area at 450 K for more information.Previous years: 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005 Time series of the size of the S.H. polar vortex at 550K.Plots update April through December each year.The 550 K surface in the south polar area lies between the 50 mb and 30 mb pressure surfaces. This is near or slightly above the altitude where ozone is in greatest abundance in the vertical profile. See the Vortex area at 450 K for more information.Previous years: 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005 Time series of the size of the S.H. polar vortex at 650K.Plots update April through December each year.The 650 K surface in the south polar area lies between the 30 mb and 20 mb pressure surfaces. This is above the altitude where ozone is in greatest abundance in the vertical profile. See the Vortex area at 450 K for more information.Previous years: 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005 Time series of the size of the S.H. polar vortex at 650K.Plots update April through December each year.The 650 K surface in the south polar area lies between the 30 mb and 20 mb pressure surfaces. This is above the altitude where ozone is in greatest abundance in the vertical profile. See the Vortex area at 450 K for more information.Previous years: 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005 Time series of the size of the air colder than -78C (PSC-1) at 450K.Plots update April through December each year.This figure shows the area within the polar vortex that has temperatures low enough to form Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs). The ice crystals that make up these PSCs are where heterogeneous photo-chemical destruction of ozone take place. So as the area of low temperatures becomes larger, there is greater liklihood of PSCs forming. When this area becomes sunlit, enhanced ozone distruction takes place.Previous years: 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990, 1989, 1988, 1987, 1986, 1985, 1984, 1983, 1982, 1981, 1980 Time series of the size of the air colder than -78C (PSC-1) at 450K.Plots update April through December each year.This figure shows the area within the polar vortex that has temperatures low enough to form Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs). The ice crystals that make up these PSCs are where heterogeneous photo-chemical destruction of ozone take place. So as the area of low temperatures becomes larger, there is greater liklihood of PSCs forming. When this area becomes sunlit, enhanced ozone distruction takes place.Previous years: 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990, 1989, 1988, 1987, 1986, 1985, 1984, 1983, 1982, 1981, 1980

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