Vs Form 17 145 United States Origin Health Certificate For The Export Of Horses From The United States To Canada

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Vs Form 17 145 United States Origin Health Certificate For The Export Of Horses From The United States To Canada – Home > AACR Cancer Grant Progress Report > Contents > Cancer Health Disparities in 2022

Discoveries and scientific breakthroughs that bring life-saving cancer treatments to the clinic have led to unexpected advances in the fight against cancer in recent decades. America’s age-adjusted cancer death rate declined 32 percent between 1991 and 2019 (1) Siegel RL, Miller KD, Fuchs HE, Jemal A. Cancer Statistics, 2022. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2022; 72:7-33. [LINK NOT AVAILABLE] , due to significant advances in prevention, early detection and treatment, including aggressive cancers such as lung cancer and melanoma. At the same time, the number of cancer survivors in the United States has increased from 7.2 million in 1992 to 16.9 million in 2019 (2) American Association for Cancer Research. Aacr cancer progress report. [updated 2021 Oct 13, cited 2022 Apr 22]. .

Vs Form 17 145 United States Origin Health Certificate For The Export Of Horses From The United States To Canada

Vs Form 17 145 United States Origin Health Certificate For The Export Of Horses From The United States To Canada

Despite significant progress overall, cancer remains a major public health challenge, and certain segments of the US population continue to bear a disproportionately high cancer burden (see sidebar: Which US Population Groups Have Cancer Health Disparities?). A long history of racism has led to discriminatory policies, systemic inequities, and structural barriers that create and perpetuate severe health disparities (see The drivers of health disparities, The beauty of cancer).

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When discussing health disparities, appropriate measures of cancer burden often differ. Throughout this report, we use the NCI definition of cancer health disparities, which are negative differences between certain population groups in cancer measures, including: the number of new cases; number of fatalities; health problems related to cancer; survival and quality of life after cancer treatment; evaluation criteria; and stage during the investigation. These population groups can be distinguished by race, ethnicity, disability, gender and sexual identity, geographic location, income, education, and other characteristics (see “Which U.S. Groups Have Cancer Health Disparities?”). Examples – National Cancer Institute. [updated 2015 Feb 17, cited 2022 Apr 22]. .

It aims to raise awareness of advances in understanding and addressing disparities across the cancer care continuum and to highlight the critical importance of cancer disparities research in saving lives. The report highlights the need for strong, sustainable, and predictable annual increases in federal funding for agencies that strengthen progress against cancer health disparities, particularly the NIH, NCI, and CDC.

In this opening chapter, we provide an overview of current disparities in cancer incidence rates (ie, the number of newly diagnosed and diagnosed cancers per 100,000 people) and cancer mortality rates (ie, people who die from cancer per 100,000 people) across US population groups. number). We discuss the multiple, deep-rooted, and interconnected causes of the cancer health divide. The chapter concludes with the general and multiple negative effects of cancer health disparities on US health and the economy, and how addressing cancer health disparities through research funding can provide equal access to health care.

According to the 2020 Census, racial and ethnic minorities (see separate section on US racial and ethnic population groups) make up about 40 percent of the US population. (Figure 1). Encouragingly, overall cancer incidence and mortality—two important measures of cancer—have steadily declined among all racial and ethnic minorities in the United States over the past several decades (Figure 2). In some cases, differences in cancer incidence and mortality are narrowing between whites and other racial and ethnic minorities. For example, the overall cancer incidence rate among blacks compared to whites declined significantly between 2013 and 2018 (8% vs. five percent decline) (4) Kaiser Family Foundation. Ethnic differences in cancer outcome, diagnosis, and treatment. [updated 2022 Jan 3, cited 2022 Apr 22]. .

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Despite some promising trends, inconsistencies in the cancer control process remain, and in some cases are growing, as noted in this report. For example, although blacks experienced the largest decline in cancer death rates between 2013 and 2018, this population group still had the highest cancer death rates in 2018 (4) Kaiser Family Foundation. Ethnic differences in cancer outcome, diagnosis, and treatment. [updated 2022 Jan 3, cited 2022 Apr 22]. . In addition, cancer rates among people of different races and ethnicities vary greatly by cancer type, as discussed in the following sections.

It is also important to note that the most recent years for which most cancer incidence and mortality data are included in this report were before the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, the report’s discussions and descriptions of cancers among racial and ethnic minorities do not reflect the impact of COVID-19, which experts say has exacerbated the health divide. For example, because the adverse effects of COVID-19 were disproportionately higher among blacks and Hispanics (7) American Cancer Society. Aacr report on the impact of COVID-19 on cancer research and patient care. [updated 2022 Jan 10, cited 2022 Apr 22]. , people from these communities are more likely to delay starting routine cancer screening. It is therefore likely that the adverse effects of COVID-19 on disparities in cancer detection and health outcomes for cancer patients will continue to change in the coming years.

According to the 2020 Census, an estimated 9.7 million people self-identify as American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN), alone or mixed with other races, or 2.9 percent of the US population. (8) United States Census Bureau. Quickfacts United States. [updated 2021 Jul 1, cited 2022 Apr 22]. . The AI/AN population is incredibly diverse, with 574 federally recognized ethnic groups and over 200 that are still unrecognized, encompassing diverse cultures, languages, and histories. It is important to note that AI/AN have the largest racial disparities in health status of any racial group in the United States, contributing to an underestimation of the cancer burden in this group (9) Jim MA, Arias E, Seneca DS , Hoopes MJ, Jim CC, Johnson NJ, et al. American Indian and Alaska Native Tribes in the Health Services Area of ​​the Indian Health Services Treaty. American Journal of Public Health 2014;104:S295-S302. [Link NOT FOUND] .

Vs Form 17 145 United States Origin Health Certificate For The Export Of Horses From The United States To Canada

Compared to whites, AI/AN individuals had a higher incidence rate of lung, colon, and kidney cancer, as well as liver, colon, oral cancer, and uterine cancer caused by infectious organisms between 2014 and 2018 (Figure 3). In addition, AI/AN residents living in different purchased/recommended care areas (PRCDAs) have significantly different cancer and dissection risks than whites. Compared to the white population, the combined incidence rate of all cancers is 23 percent lower in AI/AN populations in the Southwest, but 49 percent higher in the Southern Plains.(1) Siegel RL, Miller KD, Fuchs HE. , Jemal A. Cancer Statistics, 2022. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2022; 72, 7-33. [Link NOT FOUND]). Such approaches extend to other types of cancer. As an example, AI/AN people living in the Northern Great Plains PRCDA region have five times the incidence of lung cancer—the most common cancer diagnosed in AI/AN residents—than people living in the Southwest PRCDA area (1) Siegel RL, Miller. KD, Fuchs HE, Jemal A. Cancer Statistics, 2022. CA: Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2022;72:7-33. [Link NOT FOUND] . Compared to whites, the incidence of lung cancer is 80 percent higher in people with AI/AN in the Northern Plains, but 64 percent lower in the Southwest (1) Siegel RL, Miller KD, Fuchs HE, Jemal A. Cancer Statistics, 2022. CA : A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2022;72:7-33. [Link NOT FOUND] .

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An example of the cancer burden of the AI/AN population is the disproportionate incidence of kidney cancer. Compared with whites, kidney cancer incidence is greater than 80 percent in the AI/AN population in all regions of the PRCDA except the Eastern region (1) Siegel RL, Miller KD, Fuchs HE, Jemal A. Cancer Statistics, 2022 CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2022;72:7-33. [Link NOT FOUND] . Alarmingly, these rates have increased faster in the AI/AN population over the past two decades (2.8 percent annual growth between 2009 and 2018) than in the general population. For whites (1.1 percent increase in the same period) National Cancer Research Institute. Evaluation, epidemiology and outcome program. [updated 2022 Jan 8, cited 2022 Apr 22]. . In addition to smoking, another reason for the high incidence of kidney cancer is the high rate of type 2 diabetes in the AI/AN population (11) US Department of Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health. Diabetes and American Indians / Alaska Native Minor Health Office. [updated 2022 Apr 22, cited 2022 Apr 22]. , which increases the risk of kidney cancer (12) Tseng C-H. Type 2 diabetes and kidney cancer risk: a National Health Insurance Retrospective Cohort analysis. PLOS ONE 2015;10:e0142480. [Link NOT FOUND] . In the period 2014-2019, the most recent period for which such data is available, the proportion of AI/AN males and females was 75 and 64 percent higher, respectively.

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